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COVID-19: How Kennametal is responding

Metallurgical Expert Knowledge on Titanium

The low thermal conductivity of these materials does not allow the heat generated during machining to dissipate from the tool edge. The high work-hardening tendency of titanium alloys can also contribute to the high cutting forces and temperatures that may lead to depth-of-cut notching. 

Alpha-Beta (α-ß) Alloys

These alloys feature both a α and ß phase and contain both α and ß stabilizers.The simplest and most popular alloy in this group is Ti6Al4V, which is primarily used in the aerospace industry. Alloys in this category are easily formable and exhibit high room-temperature strength and moderate high-temperature strength. The properties of these alloys can be altered through heat treatment. 

Beta (ß) Alloys

Beta (ß) Alloys Beta (ß) alloys contain transition metals, such as V, Nb, Ta, and Mo, that stabilize the ß-phase. Examples of commercial ß alloys include Ti11.5Mo6Zr4.5Sn, Ti15V3Cr3Al3Sn, and Ti5553. Beta alloys are readily heat-treatable, generally weldable, and have high strength. Excellent formability can be expected in the solution treated condition. However, ß alloys are prone to ductile-brittle transition and thus are unsuitable for cryogenic applications. Beta alloys have a good combination or properties for sheet, heavy sections, fasteners, and spring applications. 

Trends

"The use of titanium continues to follow a 5% growth in volume, much faster than any other metal."

Titanium is typically produced in the shape of plates and bars, also forgings and castings. The Buy-to-Fly ratio (BTF) is typically between 10 and 16, meaning a raw material of 10kg titanium ends up being a finished part with the weight of 1kg.

Challenges

The Buy-to Fly ratio requires to efficiently remove the excess material. Achieved through titanium roughing applications, causing the cutting edge being exposed to extremely high temperatures for a long time. 

High-chemical reactivity of titanium alloys causes the chip to weld to the tool, leading to cratering and premature tool failure. In addition, the Chip-Tool contact area is relatively small, resulting in large stress concentration due to these higher cutting forces and temperatures resulting in premature failure of the cutting tool. 

Requirements

  • Tool stiffness/stability
  • Heat Management
  • Coolant flow
  • Grade toughness
  • Heat resistant coating
  • Chemically resistant coating
  • Low cutting force micro edge geometry
  • High Metal Removal Rates

Tooling Solutions

Shoulder Milling

 

Mill 4™-11

Shoulder Milling

 

Mill 4™-15

Helical Shoulder Milling

 

HARVI™ Ultra 8X

4 Flute End Mill,

Twisted Edge

HARVI™ I TE

Face Milling

 

Dodeka™

True 90° Shoulder Milling

 

Mill 1™